CMM on the importance of China's software industry is what?
CMM software industry in China is very valuable, its importance is it that the author of "Software Engineering and Software Capability Maturity Model SW-CMM" mentioned in the article "Synthesis of the menu and the menu" feature. China's software industry is rather young professionals are young, the number of enterprises is also increased in recent years, up until not long-term practice by a large number of accumulated experience. Unlike foreign companies can do with old and new. Many companies probably not yet established a robust software engineering process. In this case almost a white, full use of CMM and other software engineering process management and improvement programs that can help companies quickly learn and build a software engineering process, and begin implementation of the management and improvement.
Using other people's experience has been, whichever part of their useful, or make modifications using as a starting point. Then, in practice, continue to improve, to be innovative. This should be our catch up with world-class approach.
However, in the country, many people talk about the ISO9000, you will be talk of "quality certification"; a reference to SW-CMM, you will be speaking "rating." This is a dangerous signal indicates that, if handled properly, the introduction of foreign software engineering process technology, the work is likely to take detours in the beginning, serious damage to China's software industry. The effort to discuss this question carefully, than to discuss specific technical issues are more important.
On the "quality certification"
First of all, to discuss the "quality certification" this issue. (Probably the wrong term originally referred to with the ISO9000-related "quality management system certification," but, speaking to "quality certification", the impact would be misleading.)
In my opinion, it was proposed to "quality system certification" as a breakthrough in improving software quality, the software industry to promote ISO9000 certification for the software industry as a strategic direction is a wrong approach. The business goal as a "quality system certification", instead of the actual product quality. In the pursuit of "quality system certification," we fancy, or even fraudulent "rubbish certification", "mismatch" phenomenon inevitable. The results will be a waste of resources, damage the state and business interests, but also misleading the user. China must stop eat this kind of loss!
We are not entirely without "quality system certification" (for the CMM for the "level of evaluation capacity" or "rating"), but Nazhi apply to the choice of the contracting companies or other special occasions. Engage in a "certification rating movement", Nong Buhao software industry will bring a disaster, because we missed the real target. Meanwhile, China's software enterprises are not rich, not necessarily affordable consulting and certification costs. Or, they did not have sufficient human and financial resources to fully implement CMM. We must let them have the freedom to choose and develop the most appropriate for their specific program and timetable for development of the situation.
Domestic scholars point out that some companies engage in "quality system certification" just to be a advertisement, as a means of market competition. But why there is such a wrong company know about it? Why by the "quality system certification", it can be used as advertising and competition at all? Roots is that this misunderstanding is widespread in the media from some incorrect references appear in various forms of articles, speeches, reports, and even some policy documents. Fact is that these propaganda misled the company. If not the "quality system certification" Pengdao unrealistic position, and confused with the actual product quality, no one can make use of it advertising hype. Customers use the product, rather than "certification." Our customers and the market is still very young, and recognition ability is not very strong, therefore, have the opportunity to comment in the media, people, do not forget their responsibilities. Technical problems, it could never engage in "speculation" of.
Many companies are unspeakable, with industry competitors out of the "quality system certification," and rang the publicity it was forced to engage themselves. To ask ourselves, why does the formation of such a trend? We must immediately correct any misleading and misunderstanding, clear that by "quality system certification," or to achieve CMM "grade evaluation" of a certain level, only that the enterprise has a certain degree of potential ability to develop and manufacture high-quality software products. It does not mean it can really make a good product, or any of its products are good quality.
Let us look at a few well-known scholars on the quality of the quality of the definition:
Rhodamine (Deming): "the quality of the composition by the ability to meet demand."
Left Lan (Juran): "Quality is suitable for use."
Crosby (Ceosby): "Quality means the line be drawn up based on user needs and requirements."
Therefore, "quality system certification" is completely different from the true quality of products, called "quality certification" is misleading.
We should establish a standard of health: "everyone is equal before the quality." Encourage enterprises in developing and manufacturing high quality products and providing high quality customer service to compete. Media to promote both the quality. In the software business process management reporting and improved effectiveness, should also be talking about is the quality of these two, but by no means the adoption of the "certification" or "evaluation" as an ultimate outcome of publicity.
Here must be noted that some companies engaged in intentionally exaggerated consulting business "certification" role. Some of them were serious enough to know that the object of evaluation did not meet the conditions to carry out the "rating", or in the evaluation process of intentionally discharging water to meet customer requirements. This phenomenon, all related sectors should have a clear mind. This consulting firm just to income, regardless of whether the customers they really improve the software capability. Through this means for "certification" or by "rating" of the enterprise, is actually deceiving themselves. That is what got the "pass", but did not realize that the lack of real quality, eventually to be "expelled" the.
Let us carefully consider two issues:
1, "Quality System Certification" result reliable?
2, passed the "quality system certification", the enterprises must be able to develop and produce high quality software products yet? Did not do "quality system certification," they can not develop and produce high quality software products yet?
The answer is: "no." Because the key is not "certification" is not "certified."
Both domestic and foreign-related article discusses these issues and cite specific examples. Therefore, the key is the actual operation of the enterprise, "quality system certification" can not guarantee anything.
This can be said to be a common sense issue. In real life, the same in all subjects in school are perfect marks for the students, in the work of the performance will be different; have higher degrees of man may not always Chu good results; Juyou the same professional Jibie people, work performance there will be worlds apart. Therefore, the one-sided emphasis and reliance on assessment evaluation is very dangerous.
SW-CMM contempt and superstition is wrong attitude. Be it as a reference, like a certain hotel code name of "recipes Daquan", one of a series of Fine Arts, "oil painting techniques," or publishing a compilation of a "writing tutorial." How to understand the soul of the contents of reference, to learn the basic principles and objectives which, combined with their practical application to be flexible, is the attitude we should take.
The key is what? The key is process management and improvement of enterprises, truly achieve the time and on budget development and production of high quality software products. To users that high-quality products! Here, the "certification" and "evaluation" are not necessary.
"UF", "Golden Butterfly" and other companies in the software process management achievements, the key is due to the attention and participation of the leadership is committed to substantial internal process improvement. There is no "certification", they also will be successful.
Software companies want to survive and develop, both hope to establish process management and improvement, to improve their ability to force other people do not need. It is said that the software industry to promote ISO9000 certification, should be based on the premise of voluntary enterprise. However, when the relevant policies have such a number of provisions: "Through ISO9000 system certification of enterprises, give priority to ..., priority ...; the government priority to buy the company through the ISO9000 system certification of products.", "Priority support and promote the adoption of quality certification of software products. "When a business which can be" voluntary "mean? From some of the provisions of such people is impossible not to such a conclusion: ISO9000 system certification, product quality than the actual is more important!
In my opinion, to properly control the "certification" and "rating" of the use. Only in the final product quality can not be identified (for example, issued a software contract) when the only application of such methods.
The author suggested that the departments concerned can consider setting up a software product quality evaluation system, similar to the listed software comparative test, evaluation score, the outcome. Testers can be divided into two categories: professional engineers and product users. Pre-test project can all agree on. Can start from the simplest two points: 1. Instructions are clear. 2. Whether a product faithfully execute the instructions in the various functions.
As an example, Silicon Valley, here are a company specializing in the appraisal for the circuit simulator. They designed a series of test items to compare products on different platforms, different types of circuit emulation of the functional performance. Their ranking is very authoritative, became the basis for users to buy products. The simulator is constantly making efforts to improve the product manufacturer to the next better performance appraisal. This rating is attached to an electronic professional publications. They participate in competitions of the manufacturers to collect appraisal fees. We can use a variety of flexible ways of rating government-run or private.
I made use of a software error in the function of the realization of many leading core technology from that actually go against common sense with the results, and even product specifications and the actual product would not know that number. Borrow the words of a domestic counterparts: "can not believe such a product competition through the checks in their own!" But I believe, is full of such companies may take effort to go through "Quality Certification".
We should do is to help companies understand and improve the implementation of the importance of process management, to provide them with knowledge and information about working with them to resolve difficulties encountered, to assist the exchange of experiences among enterprises, vigorously promote the implementation of process management and enterprise as improvements achieved in the final product and customer service quality and business performance results, to compete with these results. The practitioners, experts, scholars and the media in these activities has much to offer and make its due contribution.
China's software industry in the application of some of the recommendations CMM
Now, let us look at the SW-CMM uses the following three:
1, for software process improvement. (SPI, Software Process Improvement)
Software companies to help change the course of their software to plan, develop and implement.
2, for software process assessment. (SPA, Software Process Assessment)
In the evaluation, a group of trained software professionals to determine the status of an enterprise software process, identify the business processes and software are facing the most pressing of all problems, and get enterprise-level software process improvement support. (This is to implement on a conducted.)
3, software capability evaluation. (SCE, Software Capabili Evaluation)
Capacity assessment, a group of trained software professionals identify qualified contractors contracts; or check the monitoring software is being used for software production process conditions.
The third, "the software capability evaluation" is not the Software Engineering Institute was originally created when the use of SW-CMM goals. In the SW-CMM to help some commercial companies successfully improve their software process, the U.S. Air Force Electronic Systems Command asked the Software Engineering Institute has developed a way to evaluate software contracts for contractors; Therefore, software process improvement (SPI) for this purpose in addition, SW-CMM Software Capability Evaluation increased (SCE) the new use.
Here is important to note the distinction between "software process assessment" and "software capability evaluation" is essentially different. "Process Evaluation" is the internal course of "software process improvement," when used to ascertain the current situation and the objectives identified for improvement carried out. The "capability assessment" issued by the software contract were used to identify and select qualified contract contractor. Naturally, businesses, the officer may take different (!) Attitude and measures to carry out both the assessment. China's software industry is still very weak, and not be able to provide many of the "ability to evaluate staff" to undertake this very challenging, "capability assessment of" work. If the attempt to implement once a large number of "capability evaluation" activities, evaluation results of the reliability of the inevitable low.
In the CMM "software process assessment" and "software capability evaluation" activities, will use a "Software Process Maturity questionnaires," the questionnaire. Reviewers use this questionnaire to understand first of all an enterprise's software engineering process and the situation, then how on this basis to further the investigation (for "Software Capability Evaluation," it is further "evidence"), for example, and different positions for the staff interviews, access to documents, or the actual process of sampling the data records.
However, if the "single question of software process maturity," a truthful answer, we can achieve an enterprise's software process maturity profile. One answer to this question, only spent about an hour, interested peers imitate try not to an informal "Software Process Assessment." Try to answer the "single question of software process maturity" of a larger benefit is that the questionnaire in a most natural way to introduce your CMM's world, eliminating the mystery of CMM. You would think: "ah, probably is all about."
Colleagues, CMM can be used only in our hands and could be a transformation tool, it is not a monster as long as the control of our, let us play to their wisdom, full use of it well and be creative. (Of course, if we ourselves do not control this tool, and if the method used is not correct, CMM can indeed turn into a monster just to control us.)
For the application of the software industry in China, CMM, I have the following preliminary recommendations:
a. focus on the software engineering process improvement (by means of "software process assessment"), unless necessary, not to engage in software capability assessment, not to pursue any "certification", "rating", "registration" and "registration."
b. Software Process Management and Improvement for the sole purpose: on time and on budget to develop and manufacture high-quality software products. (Quality of one of which is: Products to meet market needs. If you can not do this, all in vain.)
c. the CMM and other models and standards as a reference, rather than mechanically. Use their professional discretion.
d. In accordance with the enterprise's own characteristics, requirements and conditions to develop software to improve the process and select the part of the implementation.
e. The establishment and improvement of software process should be short, medium and long-term goals, quickly or slowly. Do not want to achieve anything once. Do not suddenly undergo a major revamp. Not a gambling type of overall investment. In the choice of what to do first when there are two considerations may be: "weakest link", "most likely to be effective and there are significant."
f. Do not start off target too high. Not all at once to satisfy a capability maturity level of all the objectives, you can try some of the key processes as part of the key areas of practice. To gain experience gradually.
g. top leadership must first understand the business of software process management and improvement of the establishment of an important and personally leading this work. To ensure that the staffing process management. Top leadership of the persistent business participation is a prerequisite for success.
h. Professional development of staff to fully support and participate in process management and improvement.
i. national government policy makers to listen to the "certification" of the pros and cons. Do not think you can simply use the implementation of the "certification", "rating" approach to enhance the capacity of the software industry. Only necessary as far as possible, limited "certification" and "rating" to choose a contracting business. And, after issuing the contract must be carried out construction supervision.
j. state financial assistance to enterprises in the software process improvement. For example, fees paid to external advisory bodies can be considered for some or all tax deductible and so on.
k. enterprise advisory body outside by the consulting firm must be on the "process of assessment" results (trade secret) secret. Only in this way can the enterprises within the "process of assessment" in the frank exposure to software problems existing in the process. To develop a real solution process improvement measures.
l. a business or organization is far from alone a little bit of knowledge on the SW-CMM is to make a "comprehensive" Application of SW-CMM introduction of the decision. It is a very important decision. SW-CMM comprehensive introduction application scope is very broad, and requires human, financial and equipment resources input. Enterprises must be on the SW-CMM and the thorough understanding of all knowledge only after considering whether to introduce a comprehensive application of SW-CMM and SW-CMM to the introduction of application problems.
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